Chemistry 3.1: Practical Investigations in Chemistry

Please note that Outreach support for these experiments is limited to NZ school students and teachers, and we are unable to answer queries from overseas.

Should you wish to cite a web page we recommend you follow this example:

College of Science 2011. Determination of Vitamin C Concentration by Titration, University of Canterbury. http://www.outreach.canterbury.ac.nz/chemistry/documents/vitaminc_iodine.pdf [accessed 17 Oct 2011].

Ethanol analysis of aqueous solutions

  1. Titration
    Determining the concentration of ethanol in solution using dichromate redox chemistry. Applicable to alcoholic beverages.

Chloride ion analysis

  1. Titration (Mohr)
    Determining the concentration of chloride ions by precipitation titration with silver nitrate under neutral/weakly basic conditions. Applicable to water samples.
  2. Gravimetric analysis
    Determining the concentration of chloride ions in solution by collecting the precipitate formed with silver nitrate. Applicable to seawater or solutions with high chloride ion concentrations.
  3. Titration (Volhard)
    Determining the concentration of chloride ions by precipitation titration with silver nitrate under acidic conditions. Applied to a cheese sample.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) analysis

  1. Titration (with Iodine)
    Determining the concentration of Vitamin C in solution by redox titration with iodine. Applicable to Vitamin C tablets, fruits, vegetables and juices.
  2. Titration (with Iodate)
    Determining the concentration of Vitamin C in solution by redox titration with potassium iodate. Applicable to Vitamin C tablets, fruits, vegetables and juices.

Calcium and magnesium ion analysis

  1. Complexometric titration - calcium
    Determining the concentration of calcium ions by complexometric titration with EDTA. Applicable to samples containing dissolved calcium or solid calcium carbonate.
  2. Complexometric titration - calcium and magnesium
    Determining the total concentration of calcium and magnesium ions by complexometric titration with EDTA. Applicable to samples containing dissolved calcium/magnesium or solid calcium/magnesium carbonates.

Iodate in Iodised Salt analysis

  1. Titration (pdf 136kB)
    Determining the amount of iodate (IO3-) in iodised salt by first producing iodine, then titrating this with thiosulfate.

Determination of Iron by Thiocyanate Colorimetry

  1. Colorimetry
    In this analysis the iron present in an iron tablet or food sample is extracted to form ferric (Fe3+) ions. Thiocyanate ions (SCN-) are added that react with Fe3+ ions to form a blood-red coloured complex of iron thiocyanate [FeSCN]2+. By comparing the intensity of the solution with known standard solutions, the concentration in the initial sample can be determined.
    Method for use with a colorimeter (pdf 168kB)
    Method for use if you don't have access to a colorimeter (pdf 173kB)

Manganese Analysis

  1. Redox reaction and colorimetry - fertiliser (pdf 75kB)
    In this method manganese is oxidised to a coloured permanganate solution by reacting it with an excess of potassium periodate in acid. The amount of permanganate is determined by comparison of the purple colour with known standards.

Phosphate in Soil Analysis

  1. Complexation reaction and colorimetry (pdf 143kB)
    This method uses a complexation reaction to produce a coloured complex of molybdate and phosphorus. The colour of the complex is dependent on the initial phosphate concentration in the sample.
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